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More things to see

From the Baroque theatre to the Horthy-bunker

More things to see

 


THE BAROQUE THEATRE

 In the southernmost wing of the Palace, Count Antal Grassalkovich II (1734–1794) had a theatre auditorium constructed between 1782 and 1785. 24.5 m long, 8 m wide and 9.5 m high, the space resulted from making the formerly 3-storey wing into one. The walls were decorated with Neo-classical, late Baroque paintings. The theatre was in operation only when the Count was in residence at Gödöllő.

The story of the theatre came to an end in 1867 when it was converted into rooms for the entourage of the royal family.

Reconstruction was completed in August 2003, since then it has provided a venue for high standard performances, and it is now open to museum visitors.
 
Due to the lack of professional national theatre companies, acting in 18th century Hungary was restricted to schools and to the stages of noblemen. In the southernmost wing of the Palace, Count Antal Grassalkovich II (1734–1794) had a theatre auditorium constructed during reconstruction work between 1782 and 1785. This is the earliest stone theatre with coulisses still standing in Hungary.

24.5 m long, 8 m wide and 9.5 m high, the space resulted from making the formerly 3-storey wing into one. The Rococo-style suite of Cardinal Kristóf Migazzi (1714–1803) Bishop of Vác (constructed for him by Antal Grassalkovich I) fell victim to this reconstruction.

The walls of the theatre auditorium were decorated with Neo-classical, late Baroque paintings. The plastic parastades with Roman capitals are joined by cornices at the top and marble-like pedestals at the bottom. The surfaces between the parastades are adorned with ochre-framed pink fields with garlands. The 90 square-metre stage slanting slightly towards the stalls was equipped with the best technology of the age. The spatial effect of the Baroque stage-set was achieved by means of sliding coulisses and scenery canvases hanging from above (known as soffit) and also by backdrop canvases.

There was no orchestra pit separating the stalls from the stage; the orchestra was only separated from the audience by a low draught-screen. The audience was seated in the stalls and in the two galleries on the rear wall.

The theatre only functioned periodically. Antal Grassalkovich II and his family only spent a few weeks in Gödöllő each year. They spent most of the year in Vienna, Pozsony (Bratislava) and Pozsonyivánka. A private 24-piece orchestra accompanied the duke on his travels, providing the music for theatre performances, church ceremonies and various court events. The conductor and composer for the orchestra was György Druschetzky (1745–1819). Several rooms and a rehearsal room were fitted out for the musicians in the wing opposite the theatre. This was known as the Musicians’ Gangway. German theatrical companies performing in Buda, Pest and Győr came to play here. The performances were often attended by members of the local aristocracy.

            There is no information on the theatre for around 7 decades after the death of Antal Grassalkovich II (1794). It ceased to exist in 1867, when the Palace was bought by the Hungarian state and free use of it made over as a coronation gift to Francis Joseph I and Queen Elizabeth. The building was hastily renovated in order to make it suitable for accommodating the royal family and the royal household. All the theatre furnishings were auctioned off and the inside of the theatre was once again divided into three separate floors by inserting two ceilings. A total of 15 rooms together with corridors were constructed on these floors.

            This palace layout remained unchanged until 1986, by which time the state of the building had deteriorated so badly due to improper usage following World War II that the ceiling fell in. The theatre building, previously known only from written sources, was identified when the wall-painting extending over all three floors was uncovered. Further examination of the walls also provided clear evidence of traces of the stage equipment of the age.

            In order for the theatre to be rebuilt, the floors were removed and the space once more made into one. All surviving sections of the wall-painting were restored and the missing parts reconstructed in a way distinguishable from the original. (These areas are a few millimetres deeper and have less detail.) Above the stage can be seen the ducal variant of the Grassalkovich family coat-of-arms. The stage-set can be altered with the aid of two pairs of revolving coulisses and three pairs of sliding coulisses, as well as the upper and backdrop scenery canvases. The stage equipment has been reproduced based on contemporary analogies. The coulisses can be moved manually or mechanically. Behind the stage, a spiral staircase leads to what used to be Migazzi’s guest room, where the wall-painting has also been restored. (The missing sections are indicated by white patches here.) This now functions as the theatre flies.

            The various facilities necessary for running the theatre, such as changing rooms, store-rooms and machinery, have been established on two, newly-built cellar levels. The theatre, which can seat 95, once again became a venue for quality theatrical performances in August 2003. A curiosity of theatrical history, this part of the palace can be visited on guided tours.

THE RIDING HALL 
Antal Grassalkovich I had the riding hall built on the south side of the palace in the middle of the 18th century. Because of Queen Elisabeth’s passion for riding, it was later transformed into a manège, with mirrors on all of its walls.
From the 1950s the riding hall was used by the Soviet army.
Its most important renovation was in 2010. A separate entrance was opened in the direction of the Schimmelhof and two rooms were constructed underneath it, one of which functions as a projection room. During the Hungarian presidency of the European Union in 2011, the riding hall was a primary protocol location. At present it is the scene of cultural events.
 
 
THE STABLES
The two stable buildings which Antal Grassalkovich I had built in the middle of the 18th century are connected to the riding hall. The saddle room and cleaning room were decorated with wall paintings. In the period of the Monarchy, Queen Elisabeth’s horses were kept in a separate stable, which was closer to the riding hall.
In the 1950s the Soviet army used both stables as storerooms.
The smaller stable was renovated in 2010 and the wall paintings in the saddle room and cleaning room were restored.










 

 THE KING’S HILL PAVILION

Located around 200 metres from the Palace, the King’s Hill pavilion is the only remaining building in the Palace park which dates from the Baroque period. It was Antal Grassalkovich I who had the hexagonal pavilion built in the 1760s. 54 oil paintings depicting Hungarian leaders and kings were incorporated into the panelled walls of the pavilion. The majority of the pictures have been destroyed or have disappeared and in the 1980s, only the bare walls were left standing. The building was reconstructed in 2002. The set of pictures was re-created by means of advanced photographic technology in 2004, and since then the pavilion may be visited on guided tours.

 The only building surviving from the Baroque period in the Palace park is the King’s Hill pavilion with the portraits of Hungarian leaders from the time of the Hungarian conquest and those of later Hungarian kings. It was Antal Grassalkovich I who had the hexagonal pavilion built in the 1760s around 200 metres from the palace. Galleries of ancestors and kings would be created in the 17th and 18th centuries as ornamentation for aristocratic residences. On the one hand this was a way of expressing their sense of nobility, and on the other it was a pictorial representation of their attitude to history. A speciality of the series of pictures in Gödöllő is that Grassalkovich erected a separate building for the purpose of evoking the whole of Hungarian history with a near-complete set of former rulers. The pavilion was built on an artificial hill known as King’s Hill. (This name has historical significance. It used to be the name of a place where a new king would ride up following his coronation ceremony and swing his sword towards the four winds as a sign of his will to defend the country against attacks coming from any direction.)

            The 54 oil paintings depicting the leaders and kings incorporated into the panelled walls of the pavilion all share a common frame structure of laurel wreaths and phylacteries. The phylactery displays the name of the portrait’s subject in Latin, his number in the line of rulers and the dates of his reign. Rulers of greater significance have larger portraits and have been placed in special positions over the doors and the windows. The line starts with Attila’s portrait over the northern entrance. He is followed by Keve underneath him and then the portraits follow one after the other in a clockwise manner. (After a full turn, the lines of pictures continue spirally downwards, always taking one step down after each turn under the starting picture.)

            Some of the pictures were damaged during the War of Independence in 1848–49. Baron Simon Sina, the new owner of the palace, had the pavilion renovated in 1857 in preparation for Francis Joseph I’s visit to Gödöllő. He had copies of the damaged pictures painted and also added to the collection portraits of the rulers from the century that had passed since the initial construction of the pavilion.
At the beginning of the royal period in 1867, the pavilion existed in this state and it could be visited by the public. However, following Queen Elisabeth's death in 1898, the portraits were transferred to the Royal Castle in Buda. Later on, fourten of them became property of the Hungarian National Museum but the wherebouts of the rest is still unknown. The building was reconstructed in 2002. The set of pictures has been recreated, by means of advanced photo technology. Engravings plus coloured and enlarged pictures based on other depictions have been placed next to the copies of the surviwing paintings. The Kinghill pavilion was reopened in December 2004

 



HORTHY’S BUNKER 
In the spring of 1944, the Royal Castellanship of Buda decided to have a bunker constructed for Regent Miklós Horthy, his family and his immediate entourage in Queen Elisabeth’s Garden. The building work was supervised by the Ministry of Home Defence and thus the necessary materials were procurable despite the ongoing wartime conditions.
The architect Dr. Pál Csonka (1896–1987) was invited to plan the bunker, which could hold a maximum of twenty people. The side walls of the ten-metre deep refuge were constructed of 150 to 170-centimetre thick concrete. The bunker had two entrances – an inner one, with a narrow, tunnel-like corridor leading from ground level, and a surface entrance, accessible from the front garden. The bunker was about 55 m2 and it consisted of two rooms. According to the interior plans, these rooms had wooden floorboards, beams in the ceiling and wood-panelled walls. The fittings were made of Borov pine and included tables, chairs, benches, cupboards, and sofas with open-out mattresses. A telephone line was also installed.
At the end of 1944, the palace was occupied first by German and then by Soviet troops. Miklós Horthy never inhabited his bunker and we have no data concerning the further uses it may have been put to.
The concrete housing of the external entrance to the bunker was broken up in spring 1996, when the front garden was reconstructed to resemble its Monarchy-era state.

 

The renovation of the bunker was financed by a European Union grant in 2010. Today visitors can see a reconstruction of the original fixtures and fittings in one of its rooms, while the other contains details of the history of the building of the bunker.



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